The regime and diet of a modern person has a significant influence on the processes associated with the development of the carious process of hard tooth tissues. Competent and timely dental nutritional counseling is an important and very effective direction of dental caries prevention. This problem is especially acute in children.
The nature of human nutrition is one of the main factors determining the activity of dental deposits and the condition of hard tooth tissues. Food affects the enamel of the tooth indirectly through the change in the acidity of the plaque. The processes of demineralization and remineralization of enamel replace each other at the corresponding values of the acidity of plaque. The clinical result of this alternation can be either the destruction of the enamel of the tooth, or the preservation of its integrity. The magnitude of the change in acidity is determined by the properties of the microflora of the mouth, food and saliva.
Speaking about the role of nutrition in the development of the carious process and planning preventive measures, several groups of factors should be kept in mind: food factors, factors of the oral cavity and factors of human behavior. Their influence can carry both aggressive potential in relation to the tooth, and participate in the implementation of protective mechanisms. Factors of food can be both aggressive (significant carbohydrate content, dense consistency, high stickiness), and protective (salivary effect, the presence of calcium ions, phosphorus, fluorides).
The consumption of sugar and the taste of the sweet, especially in children, is associated with pleasure. The addiction to sugar is maintained and physiologically – sucrose is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and creates a saturation effect. In addition, traditionally, sweets are perceived as a gift or a reward, which makes them psychologically very desirable. But sugar has high cariogenic and acidogenic properties. As a result of numerous epidemiological studies, it was concluded that sugar is the main culprit in the growth of caries when consuming more than 40 grams per day. Therefore, in order to prevent caries, it is suggested to limit the consumption of sugar 30 g per day, and sweets to be classified as “children’s Sunday joys”.
For a long time dentists advised to replace sweet foods with fruits and vegetables, counting on the presence of citric acid in them, which stimulates salivation, and the mechanical effect of fiber on dental deposits. However, today it is known that fruits and vegetables contain natural sugars and therefore have a high acidogenic (ability to turn into an acid) potential, and purifying and neutralizing effects are insignificant.
Today, the question of the cariogenicity of milk sugar is important in the prevention of caries of temporary teeth. It is proved that women’s milk, like the sweetened cow, has a significant cariogenic potential, that with frequent feeding in a situation where the mother and child sleep together, it can become another risk factor for early childhood caries.
Food, containing proteins and fats, has a protective effect. Proteins help improve the quality of saliva (increases the mineralizing potential), after cleavage enriches the saliva with alkaline products. Fats form a hydrophobic film on the tooth surface, preventing the growth and formation of dental deposits.
It is necessary to learn how to properly evaluate the products most often used for snacks (confectionery and bakery products, fruits and juices, etc.), in terms of their cariogenic potential, and remember the so-called “safe” snacks (cheese, nuts, meat, lard) And means for quenching thirst (water). The optimal way to minimize the cariogenic effects of food is to perform hygiene procedures – brushing teeth with a brush, paste and thread. Rinsing with water after eating does not affect the process of acid formation in the plaque. Somewhat higher protective effect of rinsing with solutions of soda or citric acid.
Reasonable diet, which involves reducing the duration of food in the mouth: a full 3-4 meals with 2-3 low-carb snacks;
The reception of sweets at the end of the main meals, after which a high-quality cleaning of the teeth is possible. It is psychologically important to adjust the diet of the child not from negative positions (“Do not eat sweets before going to bed!”), But with positive ones (“Eat candy at the end of dinner and brush teeth”).
Limitation of the total number of snacks up to two per day, replacement of sweet and fruit snacks by alkaline: cheese, milk, lettuce, cabbage, nuts, etc .;
Do not eat or drink sweet after evening brushing your teeth (before going to bed)
Juices and sour-sweet fizzy drinks drink through a tube;
Use chewing gum without sugar. The use of chewing gums can not replace the cleaning of teeth, and also has a number of side effects, so it requires compliance with a number of rules for their use. They should be chewed